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On the land-side of this border, CO 2 emission due to biological degradation of terrestrial organic matter would exceed CO 2 uptake due to photosynthesis. The CO 2 emission would decrease toward the offshore side, and photosynthetic CO 2 uptake would exceed emissions on the offshore side of this border. The location of this border may shift either offshore or inshore.
In fact, several studies have observed that some waters in estuaries with small freshwater discharge are weak sources or sometimes weak sinks of CO 2 21 , 22 , In addition, some continental shelves with large freshwater discharge have been reported to be sources of CO 2 to the atmosphere We interpret that these rather atypical observations are associated with the shift of the aforementioned border.
The shift is likely caused by the different terrestrial organic carbon load accompanied by freshwater discharge In the case of Tokyo Bay, the border is extremely shifted inshore. The shift reflects the relatively low organic carbon supply from land and the active organic matter production driven by the massive nutrient supply from land. The seasonal stratification and semi-enclosed nature of the embayment should further facilitate the net uptake of CO 2 in Tokyo Bay.
The low organic matter supply and large nutrient supply from land may seem contradictory. We believe that this imbalance between organic matter and nutrient supply is largely derived from the secondary sewage treatment in the catchment area of Tokyo Bay 4. Sewage treatment plants along Tokyo Bay remove organic carbon from freshwater at a rate of 7. This value is comparable to the uptake of CO 2 observed in this study 5. The decrease in turbidity due to the decrease in organic carbon inflow has also enhanced phytoplankton activity from the improvement of light availability The effect of sewage treatment has also been reported in other estuary systems; Amann et al.
Urbanized coastal waters that have a relatively large coverage of secondary sewage treatment tend to act as a strong net sink for atmospheric CO 2. The progress made in the urbanization of coastal areas with improved sewage treatment is common in many parts of the world This development will have an impact on the future budget of marine CO 2.
Therefore, the CO 2 budget characteristic of Tokyo Bay is expected to be observed in more marine coastal areas in the future. When the CO 2 fluxes in highly urbanized coastal waters and ordinal coastal waters are the same values as that of Tokyo Bay —3. As a result, the CO 2 budget of the global coastal waters would be expected to be a sink rather than a source. The ship routes of all cruises were presented in Fig.
Each point in this figure represents a pCO 2 value measured at a one-minute interval. Measurements of pCO 2 , salinity, and temperature were taken with a sampling frequency of one minute. The membrane equilibrator was composed of multi-layered composite hollow-fiber membrane modules 33 MHF module, Mitsubisi Rayon Co. The equilibrator was made of 6 MHF modules to create more surface area and a more rapid response.
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Atmospheric pCO 2 pCO 2 air was measured every three hours. In situ surface water salinity and temperature were measured using a thermosalinograph Tsurumi Seiki Co. The net flux of CO 2 across the air-sea interface was calculated as the product of the solubility of CO 2 in seawater 34 , the gas transfer piston velocity of CO 2 , and the difference between pCO 2 sea and pCO 2 air. After filtration, chlorophyllous pigments were extracted using N, N-dimethylformamide, and the concentrations of Chl a were determined by the fluorometric method 36 fluorometer used TD, Turner Desings.
How to cite this article : Kubo, A. A significant net sink for CO 2 in Tokyo Bay. Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Frankignoulle, M. Carbon dioxide emission from European estuaries. Science , Borges, A. Carbon dioxide and methane dynamics in estuaries.
Treaties on estuarine and coastal science 5 , Chen, C. Biogeosciecnces 10 , Kuwae, T. Blue carbon in human-dominated estuarine and shallow coastal systems. AMBIO 45 , Abril, G. Carbonate dissolution in the turbid and eutrophic Loire estuary. Yamada, Y. Kanagawa Pref. Yamamoto-Kawai, M. Calcium carbonate saturation and ocean acidification in Tokyo Bay, Japan.
Ninomiya, K. Seasonal characteristics of spatial distributions of water temperature and salinity in Tokyo Bay.
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Takahashi, T. Seasonal variation of CO 2 and nutrients in the high-latitude surface oceans: a comparative study. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 7 , Tortell, P. Active uptake of bicarbonate by diatoms. Nature , Yanagi, T. A carbon budget in Tokyo Bay. Matsumoto, E. Budget and residence times of nutrients in Tokyo Bay. Marine and Estuarine Geochemistry 9 , Kubo, A. Carbon cycling in Tokyo Bay.
Weeks, S. Massive emissions of toxic gas in the Atlantic. Iimura, A. Aoshiwo in Tokyo Bay. Chiba Prefectural Envir.
Center Report 7 , Raymond, P. Global carbon dioxide emissions from inland waters. Hotchkiss, E.
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